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Electronic Design

Electronic Design

Electronic Design

Electronic Design

PCB wiring skills
2021-09-14
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Author:Aure

PCB wiring skills

I know that many people have talked about PCB wiring experience, but here I want to share my own feelings, which are slightly different from other masters. I hope everyone will like it.


The basic PCB design process that I generally like is as follows: Preliminary preparation -> PCB structure design -> PCB layout -> wiring -> wiring optimization and silk screen -> network and DRC inspection and structure inspection -> plate making.

  

First: preliminary preparation. This includes preparing component libraries and schematics. "If you want to do well, you must first sharpen your tools." To make a good board, in addition to designing the principles, you must also draw well. Before proceeding with PCB design, we must first prepare the schematic SCH component library and PCB component library. The component library can use Peotel's own library, but it is generally difficult to find a suitable one. It is best to make your own component library based on the standard size data of the selected device. In principle, do the PCB component library first, and then do the SCH component library. PCB component library requirements are high, which directly affects the installation of the board; SCH component library requirements are relatively loose, as long as you pay attention to the definition of the pin attributes and the corresponding relationship with the PCB components. PS: Pay attention to the hidden pins in the standard library. After that is the design of the schematic diagram, and when it is done, it is ready to start the PCB design.

  


PCB wiring skills



Second: PCB structure design. In this step, draw the PCB surface in the PCB design environment according to the determined circuit board size and various mechanical positioning, and place the required connectors, buttons/switches, screw holes, assembly holes, etc. according to the positioning requirements. And fully consider and determine the wiring area and non-wiring area (such as how much area around the screw hole belongs to the non-wiring area).  

Third: PCB layout. To put it bluntly, the layout is to put devices on the board. At this time, if all the preparations mentioned above are done, you can generate the netlist (Design->Create Netlist) on the schematic, and then import the netlist (Design->Load Nets) on the PCB diagram. You can see the whole stack of devices crashing, and there are flying wires between the pins to indicate the connection. Then you can lay out the device. 

 

The general layout is carried out according to the following principles:   

①. According to the reasonable division of electrical performance, it is generally divided into: digital circuit area (that is, afraid of interference and interference), analog circuit area (fear of interference), power drive area (interference source);   

②. Circuits that complete the same function should be placed as close as possible, and the components should be adjusted to ensure the most concise connection; at the same time, adjust the relative position between the functional blocks to make the connection between the functional blocks the most concise;   

③. For high-quality components, the installation location and installation strength should be considered; heating components should be placed separately from temperature-sensitive components, and thermal convection measures should be considered when necessary;   

④. The I/O drive device is as close as possible to the edge of the printed board and to the lead-out connector;   

⑤. The clock generator (such as: crystal oscillator or clock oscillator) should be as close as possible to the device that uses the clock;   

⑥. Between the power input pin of each integrated circuit and the ground, a decoupling capacitor (generally a monolithic capacitor with good high-frequency performance is used); when the board space is dense, one can also be added around several integrated circuits Tantalum capacitors.  

⑦. A discharge diode should be added to the relay coil (1N4148 is sufficient);   

⑧. The layout requirements should be balanced, dense and orderly, not top-heavy or heavy.

——Special attention is needed. When placing components, the actual size of the components (occupied area and height) and the relative position between the components must be considered to ensure the electrical performance of the circuit board and the feasibility of production and installation At the same time as convenience, the placement of the components should be appropriately modified under the premise of ensuring that the above principles can be reflected to make them neat and beautiful. For example, the same components should be placed neatly and in the same direction.  

This step is related to the overall image of the board and the difficulty of wiring in the next step, so a little effort must be taken into consideration. When laying out, you can make preliminary wiring and fully consider the places that are not sure about it.  

Fourth: wiring. Wiring is the most important process in the entire PCB design. This will directly affect the performance of the PCB board. In the PCB design process, there are generally three divisions of wiring: first, wiring, which is the most basic requirement for PCB design. If the lines are not connected and there are flying lines everywhere, it will be a substandard board, and it can be said that you have not yet started. The second is the satisfaction of electrical performance. This is a measure of whether a printed circuit board is qualified. This is after the deployment, carefully adjust the wiring, so that it can achieve the best electrical performance. Then comes aesthetics. If your wiring is properly laid out, there is nothing that affects the performance of the electrical appliance, but at first glance it is messy, plus colorful and colorful, then no matter how good your electrical performance is, it is still a piece of rubbish in the eyes of others. This brings great inconvenience to testing and maintenance. The wiring should be neat and uniform, not crisscross and out of order. All of these must be achieved while ensuring the performance of electrical appliances and meeting other individual requirements, otherwise it will be the end of the day.  


Of course, there are other things worthy of our attention:


1. Generally, the power line and ground line should be wired first to ensure the electrical performance of the circuit board. Within the range allowed by conditions, try to widen the width of the power and ground lines, preferably the ground line is wider than the power line, their relationship is: ground line>power line>signal line, usually signal line width: 0.2 ~ 0.3mm , The smallest width can reach 0.05~0.07mm, and the power cord is generally 1.2~2.5mm. For the PCB of the digital circuit, a wide ground wire can be used to form a loop, that is, to form a ground net to use (the ground of the analog circuit cannot be used in this way)

  

2. Use 45o polyline wiring as much as possible, not 90o polyline to reduce the radiation of high-frequency signals; (the lines with high requirements should also use double-curved lines)   

 

3. Do not form a loop in any signal line. If it is unavoidable, the loop should be as small as possible; the signal line's vias should be as few as possible.

  

4. Wire the lines with strict requirements (such as high-frequency lines) in advance, and the edge lines of the input end and the output end should be avoided adjacent and parallel to avoid reflection interference. If necessary, ground wire should be added for isolation, and the wiring of two adjacent layers should be perpendicular to each other. Parasitic coupling is easy to occur in parallel.

  

5. The oscillator shell is grounded, and the clock line should be as short as possible, and it should not be drawn everywhere. The area under the clock oscillation circuit and the special high-speed logic circuit should be enlarged, and other signal lines should not be used to make the surrounding electric field approach zero.