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PCB multilayer circuit board heat dissipation skills
2021-08-28
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Author:Aure

PCB multilayer circuit board heat dissipation skills

  When electronic equipment is working, the heat generated will cause the internal temperature of the equipment to rise rapidly. If the heat is not dissipated in time, the equipment will continue to heat up, the device will fail due to overheating, and the reliability of the electronic equipment will decrease. Therefore, it is very important to conduct heat dissipation treatment on the PCB boards of PCB multi-layer circuit board manufacturers (PCB batch manufacturers).
 
   One. Analysis of temperature rise factors of printed circuit boards
 
   The direct cause of the temperature rise of the PCB multilayer circuit board is due to the existence of circuit power consumption devices. Electronic devices have different levels of power consumption, and the heating intensity varies with the size of the power consumption.
 
   Two phenomena of temperature rise in printed circuit boards:
 
  ①Short-term temperature rise or long-term temperature rise;
 
  ②Local temperature rise or large area temperature rise.
 
   When analyzing the thermal power consumption of a PCB multilayer circuit board, it is generally analyzed from the following aspects.
 
   1. Electrical power consumption
 
  ①Analyze the power consumption per unit area;
 
  ②Analyze the distribution of power consumption on the PCB multilayer circuit board.
 
  2, the structure of the printed circuit board
 
  ①The size of the printed circuit board;
 
  ②The material of the printed circuit board.
 
  3, heat conduction
 
  ①Install a radiator;
 
  ②The conduction of other installation structural parts.



 

PCB multilayer circuit board heat dissipation skills

  4, heat radiation
 
  ①The radiation coefficient on the surface of the PCB multilayer circuit board;
 
  ②The temperature difference between the PCB multilayer circuit board and the adjacent surface and their absolute temperature;
 
   5. How to install the printed circuit board
 
  ①Installation method (such as vertical installation, horizontal installation);
 
  ②The sealing condition and the distance from the case.
 
   6. Thermal convection
 
  ①Natural convection;
 
  ②Forced cooling convection.
 
The analysis of the above factors from the PCB circuit board batch manufacturers is an effective way to solve the temperature rise of the printed board. These factors are often related and dependent on each other in a product and system. Most of the factors should be analyzed according to the actual situation. According to a specific actual situation, parameters such as temperature rise and power consumption can be more accurately calculated or estimated.

   2. PCB multilayer circuit board heat dissipation method
 
   1. High heat-generating device plus radiator, heat conducting plate
 
When a small number of components in the PCB circuit board generate a large amount of heat (less than 3), a radiator or heat pipe can be added to the heating component. When the temperature cannot be lowered, a radiator with a fan can be used to Enhance the heat dissipation effect. When the number of heating devices is large (more than 3), a large heat dissipation cover (board) can be used, which is a special heat sink customized according to the position and height of the heating device on the PCB or a large flat heat sink Cut out different component height positions. The heat dissipation cover is integrally buckled on the surface of the component, and it is in contact with each component to dissipate heat. However, the heat dissipation effect is not good due to the poor consistency of height during assembly and welding of components. Usually, a soft thermal phase change thermal pad is added on the surface of the component to improve the heat dissipation effect.
 
  2. Use reasonable wiring design to realize heat dissipation
 
  Because the resin in the sheet has poor thermal conductivity, and the copper foil lines and holes are good conductors of heat, increasing the remaining rate of copper foil and increasing the heat conduction holes are the main means of heat dissipation. To evaluate the heat dissipation capacity of PCB multilayer circuit boards, it is necessary to calculate the equivalent thermal conductivity (nine eq) of composite materials composed of various materials with different thermal conductivity-an insulating substrate for PCB multilayer circuit boards.
 
  3, heat dissipation through the PCB multilayer circuit board itself
 
   The currently widely used PCB multilayer circuit boards are copper clad/epoxy glass cloth substrates or phenolic resin glass cloth substrates, and a small amount of paper-based copper clad plates are used. Although these substrates have excellent electrical properties and processing properties, they have poor heat dissipation. As a heat dissipation path for high-heating components, it is almost impossible to expect heat from the resin of the PCB itself to conduct heat, but to dissipate heat from the surface of the component to the surrounding air. However, as electronic products have entered the era of miniaturization of components, high-density mounting, and high-heating assembly, it is not enough to rely on the surface of a component with a very small surface area to dissipate heat. At the same time, due to the large-scale use of surface mount components such as QFP and BGA, the heat generated by the components is transferred to the PCB circuit board in a large amount. Therefore, the best way to solve the heat dissipation is to improve the heat dissipation capacity of the PCB itself that is in direct contact with the heating element. The board conducts or radiates.
 
  4. Arrange the devices with the highest power consumption and heat generation near the best position for heat dissipation. Do not place high-heating devices on the corners and peripheral edges of the printed board, unless a heat sink is arranged near it. When designing the power resistor, choose a larger device as much as possible, and make it have enough space for heat dissipation when adjusting the layout of the printed board.
 
5. The devices on the same printed circuit board should be arranged as far as possible according to their calorific value and degree of heat dissipation. Devices with low calorific value or poor heat resistance (such as small signal transistors, small-scale integrated circuits, electrolytic capacitors, etc.) At the uppermost flow (inlet) of the cooling airflow, devices with large heat or heat resistance (such as power transistors, large-scale integrated circuits, etc.) are placed at the furthest downstream of the cooling airflow.
 
  6. The temperature-sensitive device is best placed in the lowest temperature area (such as the bottom of the device). Never place it directly above the heating device. It is best to place multiple devices on a horizontal plane in a staggered layout.
 
7. In the horizontal direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the edge of the printed board to shorten the heat transfer path; in the vertical direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the top of the printed board to reduce the temperature of other devices when these devices work. Impact.
 
   8. The heat dissipation of the printed circuit board in the equipment mainly relies on air flow, so the air flow path should be studied during the design, and the device or printed circuit board should be reasonably configured. When air flows, it always tends to flow in places with low resistance, so when configuring devices on a printed circuit board, avoid leaving a large airspace in a certain area. The configuration of multiple printed circuit boards in the whole machine should also pay attention to the same problem.
 
  9. Avoid the concentration of hot spots on the PCB multilayer circuit board, distribute the power evenly on the PCB board as much as possible, and keep the surface temperature performance of the PCB board uniform and consistent. It is often difficult to achieve strict uniform distribution during the design process, but areas with too high power density must be avoided to prevent hot spots from affecting the normal operation of the entire circuit. If possible, it is necessary to analyze the thermal efficiency of the printed circuit. For example, the thermal efficiency index analysis software module added in some professional PCB board design software can help designers optimize the circuit design.