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General principles of PCB circuit board design
2021-09-10
View:23
Author:Frank



To get the best performance of the electronic circuit, the layout of the components and the layout of the wires are very important. In order to design PCB boards with good quality and low cost. The following general principles should be followed:

pcb board

1. Layout

First of all, we must consider the size of the PCB board. When the PCB size is too large, the printed lines will be long, the impedance will increase, the anti-noise ability will decrease, and the cost will increase; if the PCB size is too small, the heat dissipation will not be good, and adjacent lines will be easily disturbed. After determining the PCB size. Then determine the location of special components. Finally, according to the functional units of the circuit, all the components of the circuit are laid out.

The following principles should be observed when determining the location of special components:

(1) Shorten the wiring between high-frequency components as much as possible, try to reduce their distribution parameters and mutual electromagnetic interference. Components that are susceptible to interference should not be too close to each other, and input and output components should be kept as far away as possible.

(2) There may be a high potential difference between some components or wires, and the distance between them should be increased to avoid accidental short circuits caused by discharge. The components with high voltage should be arranged as far as possible in places that are not easily reachable by hands during debugging.

(3) Components weighing more than 15g should be fixed with brackets and then welded. Those components that are large, heavy, and generate a lot of heat should not be installed on the printed circuit board, but should be installed on the chassis bottom plate of the whole machine, and the heat dissipation problem should be considered. Thermal components should be far away from heating components.

(4) For the layout of adjustable components such as potentiometers, adjustable inductors, variable capacitors, and micro switches, the structural requirements of the whole machine should be considered. If it is adjusted inside the machine, it should be placed on the printed circuit board where it is convenient for adjustment; if it is adjusted outside the machine, its position should match the position of the adjustment knob on the chassis panel.

(5) The position occupied by the positioning hole of the printed board and the fixed bracket should be reserved.

According to the functional unit of the circuit. When laying out all the components of the circuit, the following principles must be met:

(1) Arrange the position of each functional circuit unit according to the circuit flow, so that the layout is convenient for signal circulation, and the signal is kept in the same direction as possible.

(2) Take the core component of each functional circuit as the center and lay out around it. The components should be evenly, neatly and compactly arranged on the PCB. Minimize and shorten the leads and connections between components.

(3) For circuits operating at high frequencies, the distributed parameters between components must be considered. Generally, the circuit should be arranged in parallel as much as possible. In this way, not only beautiful. And easy to install and weld. Easy to mass produce.

(4) The components located at the edge of the circuit board are generally not less than 2mm away from the edge of the circuit board. The best shape of the circuit board is rectangular. The aspect ratio is 3:2 to 4:3. When the size of the circuit board is larger than 200x150mm. The mechanical strength of the circuit board should be considered.