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High-performance Wi-Fi solution allows smart home hubs and gateways to connect faster and more widely
2021-09-14
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Author:Frank

Wi-Fi has become a ubiquitous connection technology in today's world, and it is an important part of our daily work and life.
The next-generation standard Wi-Fi 6 greatly improves connection speed and throughput
Based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, Wi-Fi has evolved from Wi-Fi 1 (802.11b) deployed in 1999 to Wi-Fi 6 deployed in 2020. The most obvious improvement is the increase in data transmission speed. Wi-Fi 1 has a peak transmission rate of 11 Mbps, while Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) supports a rate of up to 9.6Gbps, which is ten times that of Wi-Fi 5. In addition, Wi-Fi 6 also greatly improves throughput. For example, if you want to send a 3.8GB movie, it will take about 3850 seconds (64 minutes) to use Wi-Fi 1, while it only takes about 4.5 seconds to use Wi-Fi 6, which is equivalent to an increase of about 1000 times ( 3 orders of magnitude) speed! The increase in Wi-Fi 6 speed and throughput is due to multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology.
What is MIMO?
Traditional wireless systems communicate through a single antenna at the transmitting end and a single antenna at the receiving end, which is called Single Input Single Output (SISO). MIMO refers to a communication system with multiple antennas at the transmitting end and the receiving end, thereby improving the speed of sending and receiving data and the robustness of the signal. MIMO has been deployed since the Wi-Fi 4 standard in 2009, supporting 4x4 (that is, 4 transmitting antennas and 4 receiving antennas), and supporting 8x8 MIMO to Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6. Wi-Fi supporting MIMO was initially aimed at a single user, but in real life these data rate gains did not scale as expected, because most client devices, especially mobile devices, have only two transmitters and receivers at most, which limits the space. The maximum multiplexing gain is 2. The emergence and rapid adoption of multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) is expected to take full advantage of MIMO to multiple devices operating at the same time. Therefore, in the home gateway, to maximize the use of MIMO capabilities, it is necessary to adopt MU-MIMO. Quantenna, a subsidiary of ON Semiconductor, is the first Wi-Fi solution provider to support 4x4, 8x8 MIMO and MU-MIMO.
In the foreseeable future, 5G will not replace Wi-Fi

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The latest 5G technology and Wi-Fi 6 both mean faster connections, but their application scenarios, working frequency bands, network delays and spectrum certifications are very different. Therefore, 5G will not be in the foreseeable future. Instead of Wi-Fi, they complement each other and collaborate with each other.

The 5G standard is formulated by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is mainly used outdoors, while the Wi-Fi 6 standard is formulated by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and is more suitable for indoor use. According to the 3GPP standard, the 5G frequency band is divided into two ranges, FR1 and FR2. Among them, the frequency band of FR1 is lower than 6GHz, and the frequency of FR2 is 24GHz to 52GHz. Because high-frequency signals are easily attenuated, more complicated engineering is required. Wi-Fi 6 works at 2.4GHz, 5GHz and 6GHz. The 5G spectrum requires an application for authorization, while the Wi-Fi 6 spectrum is free of authorization, making it easier to deploy. The 5G data transmission rate is 1 to 10Gbps, and the Wi-Fi 6 transmission rate is up to 9.6Gbps. 5G supports high-speed mobile switching up to 350km per hour, and Wi-Fi 6 does not support high-speed mobile switching. The 5G network delay is less than 1ms, and the Wi-Fi 6 network delay depends on the core network, and the delay is 20 to 150ms.

How to optimize Wi-Fi performance

Aiming at the decline of Wi-Fi speed with distance, ON Semiconductor provides 8x8 MIMO, 5x5 MIMO and beamforming technology to expand Wi-Fi coverage. In order to solve the interference caused by neighboring Wi-Fi and other unauthorized networks, provide intelligent self-optimizing network (SONiQ) software to optimize Wi-Fi performance through Channel Selection and AP Steering . The SONiQ framework integrates various routers, access points, repeaters, and any system with other devices in the Wi-Fi chipset combination, enabling customers to control all products with only one software framework. In the case of many different devices in the home competing for Wi-Fi, iQStream is used to realize the routing mechanism of intelligently selecting the path through QoS priority. In addition, ON Semiconductor’s Wi-Fi 6 solution also supports the following features to achieve differentiated products: adaptive 8x8 MIMO, 8 spatial stream FB, ESP, background dynamic frequency selection (DFS), and always-on DFS.
Adaptive 8x8 MIMO
8x8 MIMO can increase the Wi-Fi data rate by 60% and greatly reduce the disconnection rate of home terminal devices while increasing the coverage. Adaptive 8×8 MIMO switches between a single 8×8 or two 4×4 networks in real time to maximize client throughput.
8Space Stream FB
Refers to processing 8 spatial stream client feedback to achieve the best performance of MIMO, such as supporting three 2x2 MU-MIMO clients.
ESP
For clients with less than 8 spatial streams of FB, complete channel information is reconstructed to increase speed and expand coverage.

Background DFS

Up to 4 chains perform 5GHz background scanning.

Always online DFS

Advanced hardware can detect and isolate radar and sub-carriers. Stay in a clean DFS channel longer than competitors.

ON Semiconductor's Wi-Fi solution

Quantenna, a subsidiary of ON Semiconductor, currently covers enterprises, retail and operators in the Wi-Fi market. Products provided include access points, routers, home gateways, Mesh nodes, etc., and will soon be expanded to industry and automobiles through Wi-Fi 6. , Consumer Internet of Things (IoT), such as smart home, home entertainment and other IoT market segments.

1. Access points/gateways that comply with Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6 standards

ON Semiconductor’s solution supports faster speeds and coverage, with a maximum speed of more than 10Gbps, supports up to 8x8 MIMO at 5GHz, and supports up to 4x4 MIMO at 2.4GHz, uses Qdock for motion detection, and supports cloud analysis.

2. Mesh nodes that comply with Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6 standards

ON Semiconductor provides dual-band and triple-band solutions with a speed of over 6Gbps, embedded CPU, and cost advantage. It uses Qdock for motion detection and supports cloud analysis.

3. Set-top boxes that comply with Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6 standards

ON Semiconductor’s solution supports dual-frequency optional and dual-frequency concurrency, speeds up to 2Gbps, and differentiated features: wireless live TV quality, faster speed/larger coverage, Mesh node function, motion detection using Qdock, and Support cloud analysis.

Spartan turnkey solution

For the above-mentioned access points/gateways and Mesh nodes, ON Semiconductor provides almost "turnkey" solutions, such as Spartan for home hub/Mesh, including full-featured hardware and software design packages, and is an authorized original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and original design manufacturer (ODM) provide product design documents, board manufacturing documents, product enclosure documents. To facilitate OEM and ODM customization, it also provides general pre-tested firmware and software development kits (SDK) to help OEM and ODM reduce Cost, speed up product launch.

The latest Wi-Fi 6 Spartan router reference design is based on the QSR10GU-AX 8x8 MIMO dual-band dual-concurrent Wi-Fi 6 chipset, providing unparalleled coverage and network capacity, accelerating the deployment of best-in-class Wi-Fi 6 routers to retail and The operator market addresses the increasing demand for wider home coverage while providing the level of performance required to meet demanding applications, such as 4K video streaming, online games, cloud synchronization, and smart home products that are increasingly connected.

The solution runs at 5GHz with 8x8 MIMO and 2.4GHz with 4x4 MIMO with 12 spatial streams. It is equipped with 2.5G Ethernet wide area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN) ports. It has a built-in near field communication (NFC) that can easily achieve Wi-Fi pairing. ) Card reader, and a hardware accelerator to optimize low latency and quality of service (QoS). Key features include true 8x8 spatial stream sound, large-scale MU-MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), transmit beamforming, 1024-quadrature amplitude modulation (1024-QAM) and target wake-up time (TWT). -Fi characteristics. The SmartScan function provides zero-wait DFS and enhanced scanning. The reference design includes ON Semiconductor’s Qdock, which supports third-party applications such as motion detection, channel state information (CSI) and radio frequency (RF) sensing to help simplify integration into customer applications.
The use of Wi-Fi for motion detection can be applied to traditional residential monitoring to detect intrusion or regular maintenance of our houses and their surroundings. This can be easily extended to smart buildings, using motion and occupancy detection as heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and The lighting control part of the building management system can also be used to monitor the elderly and vulnerable groups in the home for peace of mind.
Summarize
The next-generation Wi-Fi 6 standard greatly improves connection speed and throughput, and the development of MU-MIMO technology will further enable manufacturers to make full use of the potential of Wi-Fi. After acquiring the leading Wi-Fi technology leader Quantenna, ON Semiconductor has continued to create an overall Wi-Fi solution from silicon and systems to software with key technologies such as MU-MIMO, OFDMA, beamforming, DFS, Qdock, etc. For example, the latest flagship solution Spartan router provides excellent throughput, speed, coverage, and cost-effectiveness, brings enterprise-level performance to smart homes, and accelerates time to market with comprehensive hardware and software.