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​SMT processing short circuit reasons and solutions
​SMT processing short circuit reasons and solutions

​SMT processing short circuit reasons and solutions


   SMT chip processing short-circuit defects mostly occur between the pins of fine-pitch ICs, so it is also called "bridging". There are also short circuits between CHIP parts, which is very rare.

Causes and solutions of common fine-pitch IC pin shorts in SMT chip processing

1. Improper design of steel mesh template for SMT patch processing

   Bridging phenomenon occurs mostly between IC pins with a pitch of 0.5mm and below. Because of the small pitch, improper stencil template design or slight omissions in printing can easily occur.

  According to the requirements of the IPC-7525 stencil design guide, in order to ensure that the solder paste can be smoothly released from the stencil openings to the PCB pads, the opening of the stencil mainly depends on three factors:

1. Area ratio/width-thickness ratio>0.66.

2. The mesh wall is smooth, and the supplier is required to perform electro-polishing during the production of the steel mesh.

3. With the printing surface as the upper side, the lower opening of the mesh should be 0.01mm or 0.02mm wider than the upper opening, that is, the opening is in an inverted cone shape, which facilitates the effective release of solder paste and reduces the frequency of cleaning the screen.

pcb board

    Specifically, for ICs with a pitch of 0.5mm and below, due to their small pitch, bridging is easy to occur, the length of the stencil opening method is unchanged, and the opening width is 0.5 to 0.75 pad width. The thickness is 0.12~0.15mm, laser cutting and polishing are used to ensure the shape of the opening is inverted trapezoid and the inner wall is smooth, so that the tinting and forming are good at the time of printing.

 2. Improper selection of solder paste for SMT patch processing

The correct choice of    solder paste is also very important for solving bridging problems. When using solder paste for ICs with a pitch of 0.5mm and below, the particle size should be 20-45um and the viscosity should be around 800-1200pa.s. The activity of the solder paste can be determined according to the cleanliness of the PCB surface, generally RMA grade is used.

3. Improper SMT patch processing and printing methods

Printing is also a very important part.

1. Type of squeegee: There are two types of squeegee: plastic squeegee and steel squeegee. For IC printing with pitch less than or equal to 0.5, steel squeegee should be used to facilitate the formation of solder paste after printing.

 2. Adjustment of the squeegee: The operating angle of the squeegee is printed in the direction of 45 degrees, which can significantly improve the imbalance of the opening direction of the different stencils of the solder paste, and it can also reduce the damage to the fine-spaced stencil opening; the pressure of the squeegee is generally 30N/ mm².

 3. Printing speed: The solder paste will roll forward on the template under the push of the squeegee. The fast printing speed is beneficial to the rebound of the template, but at the same time it will prevent the solder paste from being printed. If the speed is too slow, the solder paste will not be on the template. It will roll, causing poor resolution of the solder paste printed on the pad. Usually, the printing speed range for fine pitch is 10-20mm/s.

 4. Printing method: At present, the most common printing method is divided into "contact printing" and "non-contact printing". The printing method with a gap between the template and the PCB is "non-contact printing", and the general gap value is 0.5-1.0mm. Its advantage is that it is suitable for solder pastes of different viscosity. The solder paste is pushed into the template opening by the squeegee to contact the PCB pad. After the squeegee is slowly removed, the template will be automatically separated from the PCB, which can reduce the problem of template contamination due to vacuum leakage.

   The printing method with no gap between the template and the PCB is called "contact printing". It requires the stability of the overall structure, and is suitable for printing high-precision tin templates to maintain very flat contact with the PCB, and then separate from the PCB after printing. Therefore, the printing accuracy achieved by this method is relatively high, and it is especially suitable for fine pitch and ultra Fine pitch solder paste printing.

4. Improper setting of SMT patch processing and placement height

Mounting height. For ICs whose pitch is less than or equal to 0.55mm, 0 distance or 0-0.1mm mounting height should be used when mounting to avoid the solder paste molding collapse due to too low mounting height, causing reflow When a short circuit occurs.

 5. Improper setting of PCB reflow soldering for SMT patch processing

1. The heating rate is too fast;

2. The heating temperature is too high;

3. The solder paste heats up faster than the circuit board;

4. The flux wetting speed is too fast.