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Design of Electromagnetic Compatibility of RF Circuit Printed Circuit Board

Design of Electromagnetic Compatibility of RF Circuit Printed Circuit Board

PCB EMC layout

With the development of communication technology, handheld wireless radio frequency circuit technology is used more and more widely, such as: wireless pagers, mobile phones, wireless PDAs, etc. The performance indicators of the radio frequency circuit directly affect the quality of the entire product. One of the biggest characteristics of these handheld products is miniaturization, and miniaturization means that the density of components is very large, which makes the mutual interference of components (including SMD, SMC, bare chips, etc.) very prominent. Improper handling of electromagnetic interference signals may cause the entire circuit system to fail to work normally. Therefore, how to prevent and suppress electromagnetic interference and improve electromagnetic compatibility has become a very important topic when designing radio frequency circuit PCBs. The same circuit, different PCB design structure, its performance indicators will be very different.

1. The choice of plate

The substrates of printed circuit boards include two categories: organic and inorganic. The most important properties of the substrate are the dielectric constant εr, the dissipation factor (or dielectric loss) tanδ, the thermal expansion coefficient CET and the moisture absorption rate. Among them, εr affects circuit impedance and signal transmission rate. For high-frequency circuits, the dielectric constant tolerance is the most critical factor to consider, and a substrate with a small dielectric constant tolerance should be selected.

2. PCB design process

Because the use of Protel99SE software is different from Protel98 and other software, firstly, we will briefly discuss the process of PCB design using Protel99SE software.

①Because Protel99SE uses the project (PROJECT) database mode management, it is implicit under Windows99, so you should first create a database file to manage the designed circuit schematic and PCB layout.

② The design of the schematic diagram. In order to realize the network connection, the components used must exist in the component library during the principle design, otherwise, the required components should be made in SCHLIB and stored in the library file. Then, just call the required components from the component library and connect them according to the designed circuit diagram.

③After the schematic design is completed, a netlist can be formed for use in PCB design.

④PCB design. a. Determination of PCB shape and size. The shape and size of the PCB are determined according to the position of the designed PCB in the product, the size of the space, the shape and the cooperation with other components. In MECHANICAL

The LAYER layer uses the PLACETRACK command to draw the appearance of the PCB. b. According to the requirements of SMT, make positioning holes, sight eyes, reference points, etc. on the PCB. c. The production of components. If you need to use some special components that do not exist in the component library, you need to make the components before layout. The process of making components in Protel99SE is relatively simple. Select the "MAKELIBRARY" command in the "DESIGN" menu to enter the component production window, and then select the "NEWCOMPONENT" command in the "TOOL" menu to design the components . At this time, it is only necessary to draw the corresponding pad at a certain position with PLACEPAD and other commands on the TOPLAYER layer according to the shape and size of the actual component and edit it to the required pad (including the pad shape, size, inner diameter size and angle In addition, the corresponding pin name of the pad should be marked), and then use the PLACETRACK command to draw the maximum shape of the component in the TOPOVERLAYER layer, and take a component name and save it in the component library. d. After the components are made, layout and wiring are carried out. These two parts are discussed in detail below. e. After the above process is completed, an inspection must be carried out. On the one hand, it includes the inspection of the circuit principle. On the other hand, it is necessary to check the matching and assembly problems between each other. The circuit principle can be checked manually or automatically by the network (the network formed by the schematic diagram can be compared with the network formed by the PCB). f. After the inspection is correct, archive and output the file. In Protel99SE, you must use the "EXPORT" command in the "FILE" option to store the file in the specified path and file (the "IMPORT" command transfers a file to Protel99SE). Note: After the "SAVECOPYAS..." command in the "FILE" option in Protel99SE is executed, the selected file name is not visible in Windows 98, so the file cannot be seen in the Explorer. This is not exactly the same as the "SAVEAS..." function in Protel98.

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3. Wiring

After the layout of the components is basically completed, the wiring can be started. The basic principle of wiring is: After the assembly density permits, try to use low-density wiring design, and the signal wiring is as thick as possible, which is conducive to impedance matching.

For radio frequency circuits, unreasonable design of signal line direction, width, and line spacing may cause cross interference between signal signal transmission lines; in addition, the system power supply itself also has noise interference, so it must be integrated when designing PCB radio frequency circuit boards. Consider, reasonable wiring.

When wiring, all traces should be far away from the border of the PCB board (about 2mm), so as to avoid wire breakage or hidden dangers when the PCB board is made. The power cord should be as wide as possible to reduce loop resistance. At the same time, the direction of the power cord and ground wire should be consistent with the direction of data transmission to improve anti-interference ability; The number of holes; the shorter the wiring between the components, the better, in order to reduce the distribution parameters and mutual electromagnetic interference; for incompatible signal lines should be kept away from each other, and try to avoid parallel wiring, and on both sides The signal lines should be perpendicular to each other; when wiring, the address side that needs a corner should be at an angle of 135° to avoid turning at right angles.

When wiring, the line directly connected to the pad should not be too wide. The trace should be as far away as possible from unconnected components to avoid short circuits; vias should not be drawn on the components, and should be as far away as possible from unconnected components to avoid production Phenomenon such as virtual welding, continuous welding, short circuit and so on.

In the RF circuit PCB design, the correct wiring of the power line and the ground line is particularly important, and a reasonable design is the most important means to overcome electromagnetic interference. Quite a lot of interference sources on the PCB circuit board are generated by the power supply and the ground wire, and the noise interference caused by the ground wire is the largest.

The main reason that the ground wire easily forms electromagnetic interference is the impedance of the ground wire. When a current flows through the ground wire, a voltage will be generated on the ground wire, thereby generating a ground loop current and forming a loop interference of the ground wire. When multiple circuits share a section of ground, a common impedance coupling will be formed, resulting in so-called ground noise. Therefore, when wiring the ground wire of the RF circuit PCB, you should do:

*First of all, the circuit is divided into blocks. The radio frequency circuit can basically be divided into high-frequency amplification, mixing, demodulation, local oscillator and other parts. A common potential reference point is provided for each circuit module, that is, the respective ground wire of each module circuit. , So that the signal can be transmitted between different circuit modules. Then, it is summarized in the place where the RF circuit PCB is connected to the ground wire, that is, it is summarized in the main ground wire. Since there is only one reference point, there is no common impedance coupling, so there is no mutual interference problem.

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