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PCB Tech

How to design a pcb multilayer board
2021-08-30
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Author:Aure

How to design a pcb multilayer board
 
The pcb multilayer board is a special kind of printed board, and its existence "place" is generally special. For example, there will be a pcb multilayer board in the circuit board.

This kind of PCB multi-layer circuit board can help the machine to conduct a variety of different circuits, not only that, but also can play an insulating effect, will not let electricity and electricity collide with each other, absolutely safe.

If you want to use a PCB multilayer board with better performance, you must design it carefully. Next, I will explain how to design a PCB multilayer board.


1. Determination of the shape, size and number of layers of the PCB circuit board

①Any printed circuit board has the problem of matching with other structural parts. Therefore, the shape and size of the printed circuit board must be based on the structure of the product. However, from the perspective of the production process, it should be as simple as possible, generally a rectangle with a not too wide aspect ratio to facilitate assembly, improve production efficiency, and reduce labor costs.

②The number of layers must be determined according to the requirements of circuit performance, board size and circuit density. For multi-layer printed boards, the four-layer and six-layer boards of the PCB multi-layer circuit board are the most widely used. Taking the four-layer board as an example, there are two conductor layers (component surface and soldering surface) and one power supply. Layer and a strata.


How to design a pcb multilayer board


③The layers of the PCB circuit board should be symmetrical, and it is best to have an even number of copper layers, that is, four, six, eight, etc. Because of the asymmetrical lamination, the board surface is prone to warping, especially for surface-mounted multilayer boards, which should be paid more attention.

2. The location and orientation of the components

① The location and placement direction of components should first be considered in terms of circuit principles to cater to the direction of the circuit. Whether the placement is reasonable or not will directly affect the performance of the printed board, especially the high-frequency analog circuit, which makes the location and placement requirements of the device more stringent.

② Reasonable placement of components, in a sense, has foreshadows the success of the printed board design. Therefore, when starting to lay out the layout of the printed board and determine the overall layout, a detailed analysis of the circuit principle should be carried out, and the location of special components (such as large-scale ICs, high-power tubes, signal sources, etc.) should be determined first, and then Arrange other components and try to avoid factors that may cause interference.

③On the other hand, it should be considered from the overall structure of the printed board to avoid uneven and disordered arrangement of components. This not only affects the beauty of the printed board, but also brings a lot of inconvenience to assembly and maintenance work.

3. Requirements for wiring layer and wiring area

In general, the wiring of the multilayer printed circuit board is carried out according to the circuit function. In the outer layer wiring, more wiring is required on the soldering surface and less wiring on the component surface, which is conducive to the maintenance and troubleshooting of the printed board. Thin, dense wires and signal wires that are susceptible to interference are usually arranged in the inner layer.

A large area of copper foil should be more evenly distributed in the inner and outer layers, which will help reduce the warpage of the board and also make the surface more uniform during electroplating. In order to prevent the shape processing from damaging the printed wires and causing interlayer short circuits during mechanical processing, the distance between the conductive pattern of the inner and outer layer wiring areas should be greater than 50 mils from the edge of the board.

4. Requirements for wire orientation and line width

PCB multilayer wiring should separate the power layer, ground layer and signal layer to reduce interference between power, ground, and signals. The lines of the two adjacent layers of printed boards should be as perpendicular to each other as possible, or follow diagonal lines or curves, and not parallel lines, so as to reduce the coupling and interference between the substrate layers.

And the wire should be as short as possible, especially for small signal circuits, the shorter the wire, the smaller the resistance, and the smaller the interference. For signal lines on the same layer, avoid sharp corners when changing directions. The width of the wire should be determined according to the current and impedance requirements of the circuit. The power input wire should be larger, and the signal wire can be relatively small.

For general digital boards, the power input line width can be 50 to 80 mils, and the signal line width can be 6 to 10 mils.

Wire width: 0.5, 1, 0, 1.5, 2.0;

Allowable current: 0.8, 2.0, 2.5, 1.9;

Wire resistance: 0.7, 0.41, 0.31, 0.25;

When wiring, you should also pay attention to the line width to be as consistent as possible to avoid sudden thickening and sudden thinning of the wire, which is conducive to impedance matching.

5. PCB circuit board drilling size and pad requirements

①The drilling size of the components on the PCB multi-layer board is related to the selected component pin size. If the drilling is too small, it will affect the assembly and tinning of the device; if the drilling is too large, the solder joints are not full enough during soldering.

② Generally speaking, the calculation method of component hole aperture and pad size is: component hole aperture = component pin diameter (or diagonal) + (10~30mil)

③The calculation method of the via pad is: the diameter of the via pad (VIAPAD) ≥ the diameter of the via + 12mil. Component pad diameter ≥ component hole diameter +18mil

④As for the via hole diameter, it is mainly determined by the thickness of the finished board. For high-density multilayer boards, it should generally be controlled within the range of board thickness: aperture ≤ 5:1.

6. Requirements for power layer, stratum division and flower hole

For PCB multi-layer printed circuit boards, there is at least one power layer and one ground layer. Since all voltages on the printed circuit board are connected to the same power layer, the power layer must be partitioned and isolated. The size of the partition line is generally 20-80mil line width, the voltage is super high, and the partition line is thicker . In order to increase the reliability of the connection between the welding hole and the power layer and the ground layer, in order to reduce the large-area metal heat absorption during the welding process, the joint plate should be designed into a flower hole shape. The aperture of the isolation pad ≥ drilling aperture + 20mil

7. Requirements for safety clearance

The setting of the safety distance should meet the requirements of electrical safety. Generally speaking, the minimum spacing of the outer conductors shall not be less than 4mil, and the minimum spacing of the inner conductors shall not be less than 4mil. In the case that the wiring can be arranged, the spacing should be as large as possible to improve the yield during board manufacturing and reduce the hidden danger of failure of the finished board.

8. Improve the requirements of the anti-interference ability of the whole board

In the design of multi-layer printed boards, attention must also be paid to the anti-interference ability of the entire board. The general methods are:

① Add filter capacitors near the power and ground of each IC, the capacity is generally 473 or 104.

②For sensitive signals on the printed board, the accompanying shielding wires should be added separately, and there should be as little wiring as possible near the signal source.

③Choose a reasonable grounding point.

According to the pcb multi-layer board design skills in this article, the editor of the circuit board believes that you have almost understood it? In the face of the rapid development of electronic equipment today, PCB multilayer board design is facing these high-performance, high-speed, high-density, light and thin trends. High-speed signal PCB design has increasingly become the focus and difficulty of electronic hardware development. It pays more attention to efficiency and rigorous