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PCB Tech

PCB Tech

PCB Tech

PCB Tech

What is the cause of the cavities in the plating on the hole wall of the circuit board?
2021-09-04
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Author:Belle

  Hole wall plating is one of the common defects of printed circuit board hole metallization, and it is also one of the items that easily cause the printed circuit board to be scrapped in batches. There are many factors that cause coating voids, the most common of which is PTH coating voids, which can effectively reduce the generation of PTH coating voids by controlling the relevant process parameters of the syrup. However, other factors cannot be ignored. Only through careful observation and understanding of the causes of coating voids and the characteristics of defects can the problems be solved in a timely and effective manner and the quality of the products can be maintained. Next we come to understand the two main reasons and their corresponding countermeasures in detail.

printed circuit board

1. Hole wall plating cavity caused by PTH

Hole wall plating cavities caused by PTH are mainly point-shaped or ring-shaped cavities. The specific reasons are as follows:

(1) Copper content, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde concentration in copper sink

  The solution concentration of the copper tank is the first consideration. Generally speaking, the copper content, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde concentration are proportional. When any of them is less than 10% of the standard value, the balance of chemical reactions will be destroyed, resulting in poor chemical copper deposition and spotting. The void. Therefore, priority is given to adjusting the potion parameters of the copper tank.

(2) The temperature of the bath

  The temperature of the bath also has an important influence on the activity of the solution. There are generally temperature requirements in each solution, and some of them must be strictly controlled. So pay attention to the temperature of the bath at any time.

(3) Control of activation solution

  The low divalent tin ion will cause the decomposition of colloidal palladium and affect the adsorption of palladium, but as long as the activation solution is added regularly, it will not cause major problems. The key point of the activation solution control is that it cannot be stirred with air. The oxygen in the air will oxidize the divalent tin ions. At the same time, no water can enter, which will cause the hydrolysis of SnCl2.

(4) Cleaning temperature

 The cleaning temperature is often overlooked. The best cleaning temperature is above 20°C. If it is lower than 15°C, the cleaning effect will be affected. In winter, the water temperature becomes very low, especially in the north. Due to the low washing temperature, the temperature of the board after cleaning will also become very low. The temperature of the board cannot rise immediately after entering the copper tank, which will affect the deposition effect because the golden time for copper deposition is missed. Therefore, in places where the ambient temperature is low, pay attention to the temperature of the cleaning water.

(5) The use temperature, concentration and time of the pore modifier

The temperature of the chemical liquid has strict requirements. Too high temperature will cause the decomposition of the pore modifier, lower the concentration of the pore modifier, and affect the effect of the pore. The obvious feature is the glass fiber cloth in the hole. Punctate voids appear. Only when the temperature, concentration and time of the liquid medicine are properly matched can a good hole-regulating effect be obtained, and at the same time it can save costs. The concentration of copper ions continuously accumulated in the liquid medicine must also be strictly controlled.

(6) Use temperature, concentration and time of reducing agent

 The effect of reduction is to remove the potassium manganate and potassium permanganate remaining after de-drilling. The out-of-control of the chemical liquid related parameters will affect its effect. Its obvious feature is the appearance of dotted cavities in the resin in the hole.

(7) Oscillator and swing

   The out-of-control of the oscillator and the swing will cause a ring-shaped cavity, which is mainly due to the inability to eliminate the bubbles in the hole, the most obvious is the small orifice plate with high thickness to diameter ratio. The obvious feature is that the cavities in the hole are symmetrical, and the copper thickness of the part with copper in the hole is normal, and the pattern plating layer (secondary copper) wraps the entire board plating layer (primary copper).

2. Hole wall plating caused by pattern transfer

The holes in the hole wall plating layer caused by pattern transfer are mainly ring-shaped holes in the orifice and ring-shaped holes in the hole. The specific reasons are as follows:

(1) Pre-treatment brush plate

  The pressure of the brush plate is too large, and the copper layer at the hole of the whole plate copper and PTH is rubbed off, so that the subsequent pattern electroplating cannot be plated with copper, resulting in a ring-shaped hole in the hole. The obvious feature is that the copper layer of the orifice gradually becomes thinner, and the pattern plating layer wraps the entire plate plating layer. Therefore, it is necessary to control the brushing pressure by doing a wear scar test.

(2) Residual glue at orifice

  It is very important to control the process parameters in the graphics transfer process, because poor pretreatment drying, improper film temperature and pressure will cause residual glue on the edge of the orifice, resulting in an annular cavity in the orifice. The obvious feature is that the thickness of the copper layer in the hole is normal, and there is a ring-shaped cavity at the single or double face opening, extending to the pad, and there are obvious traces of etching on the edge of the fault, and the pattern plating layer does not cover the entire board.

(3) Pretreatment micro-etching

 The amount of micro-etching in the pre-treatment should be strictly controlled, especially the number of rework of the dry film board. The main reason is that the thickness of the plating layer in the middle of the hole is too thin due to the problem of electroplating uniformity. Too much rework will result in the thinning of the copper layer in the full-board hole, and finally a ring-shaped copper-free in the middle of the hole. Its obvious feature is that the plating layer of the whole plate in the hole gradually becomes thinner, and the pattern plating layer wraps the plating layer of the whole plate.