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Talking about the Causes and Countermeasures of the Hole Wall Plating Hole of the Circuit Board
2021-09-13
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Author:Frank

Electroless copper is a very important step in the metallization of printed circuit board holes. Its purpose is to form a very thin conductive copper layer on the hole wall and copper surface to prepare for the subsequent electroplating.
Talking about the Causes and Countermeasures of the Hole Wall Plating Hole of the Circuit Board

 Electroless copper is a very important step in the metallization of printed circuit board holes. Its purpose is to form a very thin conductive copper layer on the hole wall and copper surface to prepare for the subsequent electroplating. Hole wall plating is one of the common defects of printed circuit board hole metallization, and it is also one of the items that easily cause printed circuit boards to be scrapped in batches. Therefore, to solve the problem of printed circuit board plating holes is the key control of printed circuit board manufacturers. However, due to the various reasons for its defects, only by accurately judging the characteristics of its defects can an effective solution be found.

1. Hole wall plating cavity caused by PTH

Hole wall plating cavities caused by PTH are mainly point-shaped or ring-shaped cavities. The specific reasons are as follows:

Talking about the causes and countermeasures of circuit board hole wall plating voids-Feilong Knight-Feilong Knight welcomes you!

(1) Copper content, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde concentration in copper sink

The solution concentration of the copper tank is the first consideration. Generally speaking, the copper content, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde concentration are proportional. When any of them is less than 10% of the standard value, the balance of chemical reactions will be destroyed, resulting in poor chemical copper deposition and spotting. The void. Therefore, priority is given to adjusting the potion parameters of the copper tank.

(2) The temperature of the bath

The temperature of the bath also has an important influence on the activity of the solution. There are generally temperature requirements in each solution, and some of them must be strictly controlled. Therefore, the temperature of the bath liquid should also be paid attention to at any time.

pcb board

(3) Control of activation solution

Low divalent tin ions will cause the decomposition of colloidal palladium and affect the adsorption of palladium, but as long as the activation solution is added regularly, it will not cause major problems. The key point of the activation solution control is that it cannot be stirred with air. The oxygen in the air will oxidize the divalent tin ions. At the same time, no water can enter, which will cause the hydrolysis of SnCl2.

(4) Cleaning temperature

The cleaning temperature is often overlooked. The best cleaning temperature is above 20°C. If it is lower than 15°C, the cleaning effect will be affected. In winter, the water temperature becomes very low, especially in the north. Due to the low washing temperature, the temperature of the board after cleaning will also become very low. The temperature of the board cannot rise immediately after entering the copper tank, which will affect the deposition effect because the golden time for copper deposition is missed. Therefore, in places where the ambient temperature is low, pay attention to the temperature of the cleaning water.

(5) The use temperature, concentration and time of the pore modifier

The temperature of the chemical liquid has strict requirements. Too high temperature will cause the decomposition of the pore modifier, lower the concentration of the pore modifier, and affect the effect of the pore. The obvious feature is the glass fiber cloth in the hole. Punctate voids appear. Only when the temperature, concentration and time of the liquid medicine are properly matched can a good hole-regulating effect be obtained, and at the same time it can save costs. The concentration of copper ions continuously accumulated in the liquid medicine must also be strictly controlled.

(6) Use temperature, concentration and time of reducing agent

The role of reduction is to remove the remaining potassium manganate and potassium permanganate after decontamination. The out-of-control parameters of the chemical solution will affect its effect. Its obvious feature is the appearance of dotted voids at the resin in the hole.

(7) Oscillator and swing

The out-of-control of the oscillator and the swing will cause a ring-shaped cavity, which is mainly due to the failure of the bubbles in the hole to be eliminated. The small orifice plate with a high aspect ratio is the most obvious. The obvious feature is that the cavities in the hole are symmetrical, and the copper thickness of the part with copper in the hole is normal, and the pattern plating layer (secondary copper) wraps the entire board plating layer (primary copper).

2. Hole wall plating caused by pattern transfer

The holes in the hole wall plating layer caused by pattern transfer are mainly ring-shaped holes in the orifice and ring-shaped holes in the hole. The specific reasons are as follows:

(1) Pre-treatment brush plate

The pressure of the brush plate is too large, and the copper layer of the whole plate copper and the PTH hole is brushed away, so that the subsequent pattern electroplating cannot be plated with copper, resulting in a ring-shaped hole in the hole. The obvious feature is that the copper layer of the orifice gradually becomes thinner, and the pattern plating layer wraps the entire plate plating layer. Therefore, it is necessary to control the brushing pressure by doing a wear scar test.

(2) Residual glue at orifice

The control of process parameters in the pattern transfer process is very important, because poor pre-treatment drying, improper film temperature, and pressure will cause residual glue at the edge of the orifice, resulting in an annular cavity in the orifice. The obvious feature is that the thickness of the copper layer in the hole is normal, the single-sided or double-faced opening presents a ring-shaped cavity, extending to the pad, the edge of the fault has obvious traces of etching, and the pattern plating layer does not cover the entire board (see image 3).

(3) Pretreatment micro-etching

The amount of micro-etching in the pre-treatment should be strictly controlled, especially the number of rework of the dry film board. The main reason is that the thickness of the plating layer in the middle of the hole is too thin due to the problem of electroplating uniformity. Too much rework will result in the thinning of the copper layer in the full-board hole, and finally a ring-shaped copper-free in the middle of the hole. Its obvious feature is the gradual thinning of the whole plate coating in the hole, and the pattern plating layer wraps the whole plate coating (see Figure 4)

3. Hole wall plating caused by pattern plating

(1) Micro-etching of pattern plating

The amount of micro-etching of pattern plating should also be strictly controlled, and the defects it produces are basically the same as those of dry-film pre-treatment micro-etching. In severe cases, the hole wall will be free of copper in a large area, and the thickness of the entire board on the board surface is obviously thinner. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly measure the micro-etching rate, and it is best to optimize the process parameters through DOE experiments.

(2) Poor dispersion of tin plating (lead tin)

Due to factors such as poor solution performance or insufficient swing, the thickness of the tin plating layer is insufficient. During the subsequent film removal and alkaline etching, the tin layer and copper layer in the middle of the hole are etched away, resulting in a ring-shaped cavity. The obvious feature is that the thickness of the copper layer in the hole is normal, there are obvious traces of etching on the edge of the fault, and the pattern plating layer does not cover the entire board (see Figure 5). In view of this situation, you can add some tinning brightener in the pickling before tinning, which can increase the wettability of the pcb board and increase the swing amplitude at the same time.

4 Conclusion

There are many factors that cause PCB coating voids, the most common one is PTH coating voids, which can effectively reduce the generation of PTH coating voids by controlling the relevant process parameters of the syrup. However, other factors cannot be ignored. Only through careful observation and understanding of the causes of coating voids and the characteristics of defects can the problems be solved in a timely and effective manner and the quality of the products can be maintained. Due to my limited level of experience, here are some practical problems encountered in daily production to share and communicate with colleagues.