Ultra-precision PCB Fabrication, High Frequency PCB, High Speed PCB, IC Substrate, Multilayer PCB and PCB Assembly.
The most reliable PCB custom service factory.

### Get quotes quickly.

sales@ipcb.com # PCB Tech ## PCB Tech

The influence of PCB circuit board vias on signal transmission
2021-09-17
View：47
Author：Jack

Via is one of the important components of multi-layer PCB circuit boards, and the cost of drilling usually accounts for 30% to 40% of the cost of PCB manufacturing. Simply put, every hole on the PCB can be called a via.

1. Parasitic capacitance of vias

The via itself has a parasitic capacitance to the ground. If it is known that the diameter of the isolation hole on the ground layer of the via is D2, the diameter of the via pad is D1, the thickness of the PCB board is T, and the dielectric constant of the board substrate is ε, the size of the parasitic capacitance of the via is approximately: C=1.41εTD1/(D2-D1) The parasitic capacitance of the via will cause the circuit to prolong the rise time of the signal and reduce the speed of the circuit. For example, for a PCB with a thickness of 50Mil, if a via with an inner diameter of 10Mil and a pad diameter of 20Mil is used, and the distance between the pad and the ground copper area is 32Mil, then we can approximate the via using the above formula The parasitic capacitance is roughly: C=1.41x4.4x0.050x0.020/(0.032-0.020)=0.517pF, the rise time change caused by this part of the capacitance is: T10-90=2.2C(Z0/2)=2.2 x0.517x(55/2)=31.28ps. It can be seen from these values that although the effect of the rise delay caused by the parasitic capacitance of a single via is not obvious, if the via is used multiple times in the trace to switch between layers, the designer should still consider carefully. Second, the parasitic inductance of the via

Similarly, there are parasitic capacitances along with vias. In the design of high-speed digital circuits, the damage caused by the parasitic inductance of the vias is often greater than the impact of the parasitic capacitance. Its parasitic series inductance will weaken the contribution of the bypass capacitor and weaken the filtering effect of the entire power system. We can simply calculate the approximate parasitic inductance of a via with the following formula: L=5.08h[ln(4h/d)+1] where L refers to the inductance of the via, h is the length of the via, and d is the center The diameter of the hole. It can be seen from the formula that the diameter of the via has a small influence on the inductance, and the length of the via has the greatest influence on the inductance. Still using the above example, the inductance of the via can be calculated as: L=5.08x0.050[ln(4x0.050/0.010)+1]=1.015nH. If the rise time of the signal is 1ns, then its equivalent impedance is: XL=πL/T10-90=3.19Ω. Such impedance can no longer be ignored when high-frequency currents pass. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the bypass capacitor needs to pass through two vias when connecting the power plane and the ground plane, so that the parasitic inductance of the vias will increase exponentially.