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PCB Tech

PCB Tech

PCB Tech

PCB Tech

Related issues in PCB drawing

1. In the PCB design and drawing, layout/wiring, and the influence on electrical performance will often be seen from the books about electronics such as "digital ground wire and analog ground wire should be separated". Everyone who has deployed the board knows that this is a certain degree of difficulty in actual operation.

To lay out a better board, you must first have an electrical understanding of the IC you are using, which pins will produce higher harmonics (the rising/falling edges of digital signals or switching square wave signals). Which pins are susceptible to electromagnetic interference, the signal block diagram (signal processing unit block diagram) inside the IC helps us understand.

The layout of the whole machine is the primary condition for determining the electrical performance, and the layout of the boards is more concerned with the direction or flow of the signal/data between the ICs. The main principle is the part close to the power supply that is prone to electromagnetic radiation; there are many weak signal processing parts. Determined by the overall structure of the equipment (that is, the overall planning of the earlier equipment), as close as possible to the signal input or detection head (probe), this can better improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and provide a purer signal for subsequent signal processing and data recognition Signal/accurate data.

2. PCB copper and platinum treatment

As the current IC working clock (digital IC) is getting higher and higher, its signal puts forward certain requirements on the width of the line. The width of the trace (copper platinum) is good for low-frequency and strong current, but for high-frequency signals and data For line signals, this is not the case. Data signals are more about synchronization, and high-frequency signals are mostly affected by the skin effect. Therefore, the two must be separated.

High-frequency signal traces should be thin rather than wide, short rather than long, which also involves layout issues (signal coupling between devices), which can reduce induced electromagnetic interference.

pcb board

The data signal appears on the circuit in the form of pulses, and its high-order harmonic content is the decisive factor to ensure the correctness of the signal; the same wide copper platinum will produce a skin effect (distribution) for the high-speed data signal. Capacitance/inductance becomes larger), this will cause the signal to deteriorate, the data recognition is incorrect, and if the line width of the data bus channel is inconsistent, it will affect the synchronization problem of the data (causing inconsistent delay), in order to better control the data signal Therefore, a serpentine line appears in the data bus routing, which is to make the signal in the data channel more consistent in delay. The large-area copper paving is for shielding interference and inductive interference. The double-sided board can let the ground be used as a copper paving layer; while the multi-layer board does not have the problem of paving copper, because the power layer in between is very good. Shielding and isolation.

3. Interlayer layout of multilayer board

Take a four-layer board as an example. The power (positive/negative) layer should be placed in the middle, and the signal layer should be routed on the outer two layers. Note that there should be no signal layer between the positive and negative power layers. The advantage of this method is As far as possible, let the power layer play the role of filtering/shielding/isolation, and at the same time facilitate the production of PCB manufacturers to improve the yield rate.

4. Via

Engineering design should minimize the design of vias, because vias will generate capacitance, but also burrs and electromagnetic radiation.

The aperture of the via hole should be small rather than large (this is for electrical performance; but too small aperture will increase the difficulty of PCB production, generally 0.5mm/0.8mm, 0.3mm is used as small as possible), small aperture is used in copper sinking process The probability of subsequent burrs is smaller than that of large apertures. This is due to the drilling process.

5. Software application

Every software has its ease of use, but you are familiar with the software. I have used PADS (POWER PCB)/PROTEL. When making simple circuits (the circuits I am familiar with), I will use PADS Direct Layout; when making complex and new device circuits, it is better to draw the schematic diagram first, and do it in the form of a netlist, which should be correct and convenient.

When Layout PCB, there are some non-circular holes, and there is no corresponding function to describe in the software. My usual method is: open a layer dedicated to express the holes, and then draw the desired opening on this layer. The hole shape, of course, should be filled with the drawn wire frame. This is to better allow the PCB manufacturer to recognize its own expression and explain it in the sample documentation.

6. The PCB is sent to the manufacturer for sample

a, PCB computer file

b. The layering scheme of the PCB file (each electronic engineer has different drawing habits, the PCB file after the layout will be different in the layer application, so you need to attach a white oil diagram/green oil diagram/circuit diagram of your file /Mechanical structure drawing/Auxiliary hole drawing, make a correct list document to explain your wishes)

c. The production process requirements of the circuit board PCB, you need to attach a document to explain the process of making the board: gold plating/copper plating/tinning/sweeping rosin, board thickness specifications, PCB board material (flame retardant/non-flame retardant).

d, the number of samples

e, of course you have to sign the contact information and the person in charge