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PCB Tech

PCB Tech

Impact of 5G Technology Automatic Driving of high-frequency
2021-07-28
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Author:Evian

5G Technology Automatic Driving of high-frequency  is a product that deeply integrates the car industry with a new generation of information skills such as artificial intelligence. Internet of things and high-performance computing. Including Google, Baidu, Ali, Toyota and Ford, all international driving of high-frequency cutting-edge Internet and giant manufacturers were laying out, developing and actively driving. It was the primary direction of intelligent and networked development in the field of car and transportation at that time, It has become a strategic commanding point for all countries, and the central skills of active control have developed rapidly in recent years.

 

5G technique

Car is an important scene for 5G use. The editor of the PCB of the car communication module learned that in the 4G era, our understanding of the Internet of vehicles is the on-board entertainment system, while in the 5G era, the Internet of vehicles means v2x (vehicle to x). When the vehicle is interconnected with the whole traffic system (including but not limited to other traffic participants, traffic lights and road information), each vehicle can obtain the speed and steering information of surrounding vehicles in real time, and then avoid accidents; Each vehicle can also obtain real-time road condition information. The traffic management system can adjust traffic signals according to real-time road conditions, and then greatly reduce congestion.

5G technique will greatly assist in automatic control. Now the mainstream active driving skills completely depend on the perception ability of the vehicle itself. It is necessary to carry a series of sensors such as lidar worth hundreds of thousands of yuan on the vehicle, but the detection distance and accuracy still need to be improved. At the same time, the blind area of vision and the unpredictability of other vehicles mean the existence of risks.

After obtaining the help of 5G technique, in many cases, the vehicle no longer needs to actively perceive other vehicles, because the other party's information has long been transmitted to your car through the network. You and your car can know its existence without seeing it. In this "God's perspective", the importance of sensors is greatly reduced, but active control is simpler, cheaper, more reliable and safer.


Identification skills

Recognition skills mainly include three aspects: road surface, static object and dynamic object. As for a dynamic object, it is not only necessary to detect, but also to track its orbit, and guess the next orbit (orientation) of the object according to the tracking results. This is inevitable in urban areas, especially in urban areas of China. The most typical scene is Beijing Wudaokou: if you stop when you see pedestrians, you will never be able to pass Wudaokou. Pedestrians almost never stop walking in front of the car. Human drivers will roughly evaluate the next direction of pedestrians according to their moving track, and then calculate the safe space (path planning) according to the vehicle speed. Bus drivers are best at this road. Driverless cars should be able to do the same. It should be noted that this is the tracking and guess of the orbits of multiple moving objects, which is much more difficult than a single object. This is modat (moving object detection and tracking). It is also the most difficult skill for unmanned cars.

 

V2X technique

Vehicle to everything (V2X) is a new generation of information communication skills that connects the vehicle with everything. V represents the vehicle and X represents any object interacting with the vehicle. At that time, X mainly includes vehicle, people, traffic roadside infrastructure and network. The circuit board factory learned that the information mode of V2X interaction includes: vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I), vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) and vehicle to network (V2N). V2V technology allows the vehicle to prevent accidents by forwarding the real-time information of itself and ahead, then reduce the driving time, and finally complete the intention of improving the traffic environment and reducing traffic congestion.

V2I skills assist vehicles and roadside traffic facilities to complete data exchange through wireless methods, mainly including intersection safety handling, vehicle speed limit control, electronic toll collection, transportation safety handling, road construction and height limit warning. This skill will promote the intellectualization of transportation facilities, including traffic facilities such as stop entering lights and weather information systems, which can evolve into intelligent transportation facilities that can identify high-risk situations through a variety of algorithms and actively adopt warning methods.

At present, the V2X field is divided into two specification and industrial camps: DSRC and C-V2X. In the domestic market, because it has the world's largest 4G LTE network and mature industrial chain, and there is not much accumulation of DSRC skills, it is analyzed that the development of domestic v2x will be inclined to C-V2X.

 

Human computer interaction technique

Human computer interaction skills, especially voice control, gesture recognition and touch screen skills, will be widely used in the global car market in the future. The ultimate intention of the planning of actively driving the large human-computer interaction screen of the car is to provide a good user experience and enhance the user's driving fun or operation experience in the driving process. It pays more attention to the safety of driving. In this way, it is necessary to balance the good user experience and safety in the planning of the human-computer interface. To a great extent, safety always comes first. The man-machine interface for actively driving the car shall integrate multiple functions such as vehicle control, function setting, information entertainment, navigation system and on-board telephone, so as to facilitate the driver to quickly query, set and switch various information of the vehicle system, and then make the vehicle achieve the desired operation. In the future, the on-board information display system and smart phone will be seamlessly connected, and there will be a variety of input methods provided by the man-machine interface. Through the use of different skills, customers can switch freely according to different operations and functions.

 

High precision map

High frequency precision map has accurate vehicle orientation information and rich road element data information, which can help cars predict complex road information, such as slope, curvature, heading, etc. Compared with the traditional, it has higher real-time performance. Because the road surface often changes, such as road renovation, sign line wear or repainting, traffic sign changes, etc., these changes should be reflected in the high-precision map in time. The high-precision map will put more emphasis on the three-dimensional model and accuracy of space, and reduce the accuracy from meter level to centimeter level. It is necessary to show every feature and situation on the road very accurately.

 

Decision planning skills

Resolution planning is the central skill of unmanned driving to show intelligence, which is equivalent to the brain of actively driving a car. It plans the vehicle at that time (speed planning, direction planning, acceleration planning, etc.) through comprehensive analysis of the information provided by the environmental perception system and the results of routing and addressing from the high-precision map, and generates the corresponding resolution plan (car following, lane changing Parking, etc.). PCB manufacturers believe that planning skills also need to consider the mechanical characteristics, dynamic characteristics and kinematic characteristics of vehicles. Common decision planning skills include expert manipulation, hidden Markov model, Bayesian network, fuzzy logic, etc.

 

Positioning skills

In addition to GPS and inertial sensors, we usually use LIDAR point cloud and high-precision map matching, visual mileage calculation method and other positioning methods to correct each other to achieve more accurate results. With the development of active control, positioning skills will continue to be optimized.

Now the skills of active control basically come from robots. Active control of cars can be regarded as a wheeled robot plus a comfortable sofa. Localization and path planning is a problem in robot system. Without localization, the path cannot be planned. Centimeter level real-time positioning is one of the biggest challenges of active control. For the robot system, the location mainly depends on the interspersed comparison between slam and prior map.


Communication security technique

While actively 5G Technology Automatic Driving of high-frequency through the vehicle network to access the grid, it also brings the problem of information security. In use, the information of each car and its owner will be transmitted to the network anytime and anywhere to be perceived. This information exposed in the network is very simple, which is stolen, disturbed and even modified, and then directly affects the security of the intelligent networked car system, Therefore, in the intelligent networked car, we must pay attention to the research of information security and privacy protection skills.