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PCB Board

What is a PCB Board?

PCB Board

What is a PCB Board?

PCB board is the mother of electronic products. it is an electronic component that uses electronic printing to etch on the surface of the insulated and nonbinding copper clad laminate, leaving a network of small circuits, so that various electronic components can form a predetermined circuit connection and achieve the relay transmission function between electronic components. Most electronic equipment and products need to be equipped PCB Board, PCB Board is called "the mother of electronic products". PCB Board's quality not only directly affects the reliability of electronic products but also affects the overall competitiveness of system products. Its development has a history of more than 100 years. its design is mainly layout design, the main advantage of using PCB board is to greatly reduce wiring and assembly errors, and improve the level of automation and production labor.

PCB board is also known as a Printed circuit board (PCB), is a provider of electrical connections for electronic components.

Printed circuit board are often referred to as "PCB", also have many peoples called "PCB board". Since the printed circuit board is not a general terminal product, the definition of the name is slightly confusing. For example, the motherboard for personal computers is called the mainboard, and cannot be directly called the circuit board. Although there are circuit boards in the motherboard, They are not the same, so when evaluating the industry, the two are related but cannot be said to be the same. Another example: because there are integrated circuit components mounted on the circuit board, the news media call it an IC board, but in fact, it is not equivalent to a printed circuit board. We usually say that the printed circuit board refers to the bare board-that is, the circuit board without upper components.

According to the number of circuit board layers, it can be divided into single-sided, double-layer, four-layer, six-layer, and other multilayer circuit boards. And continue to develop in the direction of high precision, high density, and high reliability. Continuously shrinking volume, reducing costs, and improving performance have enabled printed circuit boards to maintain strong vitality in the development of future electronic products. The future development trend of PCB board manufacturing technology is to develop in the direction of high density, high precision, fine aperture, fine wire, small pitch, high reliability, multilayer, high-speed transmission, lightweight, and thinness in performance.

PCB board

PCB board

According to the distribution of printed circuit board.

Single-sided PCB board

The single layer board is on an insulating substrate with a thickness of 0.2-5mm, only one surface is covered with copper foil, and a printed circuit is formed on the substrate by printing and etching. The single panel is simple to manufacture and easy to assemble. It is suitable for the requirements of a circuit, such as radios, televisions, etc.. It is not suitable for occasions requiring high assembly density or complex circuits.

Double-sided PCB board

The double-sided boards are printed circuits on both sides of an insulating substrate with a thickness of 0.2-5mm. It is suitable for electronic products with general requirements, such as electronic computers, electronic instruments and meters. Since the wiring density of the double-sided printed circuit is higher than that of the single-sided printed circuit, the volume of the device can be reduced.

Multilayer PCBboard

Printed boards with more than 3 layers of printed circuits printed on an insulating substrate are called multilayer boards. It is a combination of several thin single or double panels, and its thickness is generally 1.2-2.5mm. In order to lead out the circuit sandwiched between the insulating substrate, the holes for mounting components on the multilayer board need to be metalized, that is, a metal layer is applied to the inner surface of the small holes to connect them with the printed circuit sandwiched between the insulating substrates.

Classified by the nature of the substrate

Rigid PCB board

The rigid PCB board has a certain mechanical strength, and the parts assembled with it have a flat state. Rigid printed boards are used in general electronic products.

Flex PCB board

The flexible PCB board is made of soft layered plastic or other soft insulating materials as the base material. The parts made of it can be bent and stretched and can be bent according to the installation requirements during use. Flexible printed boards are generally used on special occasions. For example, the display screen of some digital multimeters can be rotated, and flexible printed boards are often used inside; the display screens, buttons of mobile phones, etc.

Rigid-flex PCB board

The birth and development of FPC and PCB gave birth to the new product of flex and rigid board. Therefore, the rigid-flex board is the flexible circuit board and the rigid circuit board. After pressing and other processes, they are combined according to the relevant process requirements to form a circuit board with FPC characteristics and PCB characteristics.

PCB board

PCB board

Classified by the scope of application

PCB can be divided into low-frequency PCB and high-frequency PCB. High frequency of electronic equipment is the development trend, especially in today's wireless network and satellite communication, information products are moving towards high speed and high frequency, and communication products are moving towards the standardization of voice, video, and data of wireless transmission with large capacity and high speed. Therefore, the new generation of products need a high-frequency printed circuit board, and the foil substrate can be made up of materials with small dielectric loss and dielectric constant, such as polyurethane, polyethylene, polystyrene, polytetrafluoroethylene glass cloth.

Classified by the special of printed boards(PCB board)

At present, there are some specially printed boards, such as metal core printed board, surface mounted printed circuit board and carbon film printed board.

Metal core PCB board

The metal core PCB board is to replace the epoxy glass cloth board with a metal plate of the same thickness. After special treatment, the conductor circuits on both sides of the metal board are connected with each other and highly insulated from the metal part. The advantage of metal core PCB is good heat dissipation and dimensional stability. This is because magnetic materials such as aluminum and iron have a shielding effect and can prevent mutual interference.

Surface mount PCB
Surface mount printed circuit board (SMB) is a kind of PCB developed to meet the needs of "light, thin, short and small" of electronic products, and with the installation process of surface mount devices with pin density and low cost. The printed circuit board has the characteristics of small aperture, small line width and spacing, high precision, and high substrate requirements.

Carbon film printed board
Carbon film printed board is a kind of printed board which is printed with a layer of carbon film after the conductor pattern is made on the copper foil to form contact or jumper wire (the resistance value meets the specified requirements). It is characterized by a simple production process, low cost, short cycle, good wear resistance, and electrical conductivity. It can realize the high density of single panels and miniaturization and light weight of products. It is suitable for TV, telephone, video recorder, and electronic organ.

Impedance control of PCB board

For analog or high-frequency digital circuits, it is important to ensure the integrity of the signals transmitted on the PCB. In fact, signals higher than 100 MHz are affected by the impedance of the conductor run, which, if not properly considered, can lead to inconvenient errors and are particularly difficult to analyze. Fortunately, impedance control allows PCB designers and manufacturers to manage this phenomenon.

PCB board impedance refers to the parameters of resistance and reactance, which hinders alternating current. In the production of PCB circuit board, impedance processing is indispensable. The reasons are as follows:

1. PCB circuit board (board bottom) needs to consider the plug installation of electronic components, after the plugin consideration of conductivity and signal transmission performance and other factors, so the lower the impedance, the better, the resistivity should be less than 1 & MES; 10-6 per square centimeter.

2. PCB circuit board in the production process has to go through copper deposition, electro tinning (or electroless plating, or hot spray tin), connector soldering process, and the materials used in these links must ensure the low resistivity, to ensure that the overall impedance of the circuit board is low, meet the product quality requirements, and can operate normally.

3. The tin plating of the PCBcircuit board is the easiest problem in the production of the whole circuit board, and it is the key link that affects the impedance. The biggest defect of electroless tin coating is easy to change color (easy to oxidize or deliquescence), poor solderability, which will lead to the circuit board is difficult to weld, high impedance, poor conductivity, or instability of the whole board performance.

4. There will be all kinds of signal transmission in the conductor of the PCB board. When the frequency must be increased in order to improve the transmission rate if the PCB board itself is different due to etching, stack thickness, wire width, and other factors, the impedance value will change, the signal will be distorted and the performance of the PCB board will be reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to control the impedance value within a certain range.

How to design PCB board?

When designing a PCB board, many complicated steps are often required. Whether it is the basics of micro-processing copper and solder, or trying to ensure that the PCB is finally printed, or encountering more specific design problems, such as through-hole technology or design signals with through-holes, pads, and any number of layouts For integrity issues, you need to ensure that you have the correct design software. So now iPCB tells you how to design a PCB board.

1. Create a schematic diagram of the PCB board

Whether you are generating a design from a template or creating a PCB board from scratch, it is best to start with a PCB schematic. The schematic is similar to the blueprint of the new device, and it is important to understand what is shown in the schematic. Compared with designing directly on the PCB board, not only is the circuit interconnection easier to define and edit, but it is also much easier to convert the PCB schematic diagram into the PCB board layout. For components, PCB circuit board design software has an extensive part library database.

2. Create a blank PCB board layout

After creating the PCB schematic, you need to use the schematic capture tool in the PCB design software to start creating the PCB layout. Before that, you need to create a blank PCB document. To create a PCB board, a PCBDoc file needs to be generated. This can be done easily from the main menu of the design software

If the PCB shape, size, and layer stack of the PCB board have been determined, you can set it up immediately. If you don't want to perform these tasks now, don't worry, you can change the shape of the PCB board later. By compiling SchDoc, the schematic information can be used in PCBDoc. The compilation process includes verifying the design and generating several project documents so that you can check and correct the design before transferring to PCBDoc. It is strongly recommended that you check and update the item options used to create the PCBDoc information at this time.

When designing a PCB board, it sometimes seems that it will be a long and arduous journey to reach the final design. Whether it is the basics of micro-processing copper and solder, or trying to ensure that the PCB is finally printed, or encountering more specific design problems, such as through-hole technology or design signals with through-holes, pads, and any number of layouts For integrity issues, you need to ensure that you have the correct PCB design software.

3. Capture the schematic diagram of the PCB prototype board and link it to the PCB

All the tools in the PCB prototype board design software can be used in a unified design environment. In this design environment, the schematic, PCB, and BOM are related to each other and can be accessed at the same time. Other programs will force you to manually compile the schematic data.

4. Design the PCB stack up

When you transfer the schematic information to PCBDoc, in addition to the specified PCB board outline, the package of the component will also be displayed. Before placing components, you should use the "Layer Stack Manager" as shown below to define the PCB layout (ie shape, layer stack).

If you are not familiar with PCB board design, although any number of layers can be defined in the PCB board design software, most modern designs will start with a 4-layer board on FR4. You can also take advantage of the material stacking library; this way, you can choose from a variety of different laminates and unique panels.

If you want to design a high-speed/high-frequency PCB board, you can use the built-in impedance analyzer to ensure impedance control in the PCB prototype board. The impedance curve tool uses Simberian's integrated electromagnetic field solver to customize the geometry of the trace to achieve the target impedance value.

For more detailed PCB stack up reference instructions, click Download - download PCB stackup

5. Define design rules and DFM requirements

There are many categories of PCB design rules, and you may not need to use all of these available rules for every design. You can select/deselect individual rules by right-clicking the problematic rule in the list in the PCB rule and constraint editor below.

The rules you do use, especially those used for manufacturing, should comply with the specifications and tolerances of the PCB manufacturer’s equipment. Advanced designs such as impedance control designs and many high-speed/high-frequency designs may need to follow very specific design rules to ensure that your product works properly. Always check your component datasheet to understand these design rules.

6. Place the components on the PCB prototype board

The current mainstream PCB board design software provides great flexibility and allows you to quickly place components on the PCB board. You can arrange the components automatically, or you can place them manually. You can also use these options together to take advantage of the speed of automatic placement and ensure that the PCB is laid out according to good component placement guidelines.

7. PCB board insertion hole

Before PCB layout, it is best to place drill holes (mounting and vias). If your design is complex, you may need to modify at least some via locations during the routing process. This can be done easily through the "Properties" dialog box.

Your preference here should follow the manufacturing design (DFM) specifications of the PCB board manufacturer. If you have defined the DFM requirements of the PCB as design rules (see step 5), the PCB design software will automatically check these rules when you place vias, drill holes, pads, and traces in the layout.

8. PCB board layout tracking

After placing the components and any other mechanical components, you can prepare the layout. Make sure to use good wiring guidelines and use PCB design software tools to simplify the process, such as highlighting the net and color coding through wiring.

9. Add the label and identifier of the PCB board

After verifying the PCB board layout, you can add labels, identifiers, marks, logos, or any other images on the PCB board. It is a good idea to use reference identifiers for components, as this will help PCB assembly. In addition, include polarity indicators, pin 1 indicators, and any other labels that help identify components and their orientation. For logos and images, it is best to consult your PCB board manufacturer to ensure that the fonts you use are readable.

10. Generate the Gerber file for the design of the PCB board Layout.

Before the PCB manufacturer can deliver the results, it is always best to verify the PCB layout by running a design rule check (DRC).

After the PCB board passes the final DRC, you need to generate design files for the PCB board manufacturer. The design file should include all the information and data needed to build the PCB board, and include any notes or special requirements to ensure that your manufacturer is clear about your requirements. For most PCB board manufacturers, you will be able to use Gerber files, but some PCB board manufacturers prefer other CAD file formats. Now, do you know what is PCB board?