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PCB Tech
The design of heat dissipation function of pcb circuit board
PCB Tech
The design of heat dissipation function of pcb circuit board

The design of heat dissipation function of pcb circuit board

2021-11-05
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Author:Jack

The electrical energy consumed by electronic equipment during operation, such as radio frequency power amplifiers, FPGA chips, and power products, in addition to useful work, most of which is converted into heat and dissipated. The heat generated by the electronic equipment causes the internal temperature to rise rapidly. If the heat is not dissipated in time, the equipment will continue to heat up, the device will fail due to overheating, and the reliability of the electronic equipment will decrease. The installation density of electronic equipment is increased, the effective heat dissipation area is reduced, and the temperature rise of the equipment seriously affects the reliability. Therefore, the research on thermal design is very important.
Brothers engaged in radio frequency have firewood, so heat dissipation is fine?
The heat dissipation of the PCB circuit board is a very important link, so what is the heat dissipation technique of the PCB circuit board, let's discuss it together below.
For electronic equipment, a certain amount of heat is generated during operation, so that the internal temperature of the equipment rises rapidly. If the heat is not dissipated in time, the equipment will continue to heat up, and the device will fail due to overheating. The reliability of the electronic equipment Performance will decrease. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a good heat dissipation treatment on the circuit board.

PCB circuit board

The direct cause of the temperature rise of the printed board is due to the existence of circuit power consumption devices. Electronic devices all have power consumption to varying degrees, and the heating intensity varies with the size of the power consumption.
Two phenomena of temperature rise in printed boards:
(1) Local temperature rise or large area temperature rise;
(2) Short-term temperature rise or long-term temperature rise. When analyzing PCB thermal power consumption, it is generally analyzed from the following aspects.
2.1 Electrical power consumption
(1) Analyze the power consumption per unit area;
(2) Analyze the distribution of power consumption on the PCB.
2.2 The structure of the printed board
(1) The size of the printed board;
(2) The material of the printed board.
2.3 How to install the printed board
(1) Installation method (such as vertical installation, horizontal installation);
(2) The sealing condition and the distance from the casing.
2.4 Thermal radiation
(1) The emissivity of the printed board surface;
(2) The temperature difference between the printed board and the adjacent surface and their absolute temperature
2.5 Heat conduction
(1) Install the radiator;
(2) Conduction of other installation structural parts.
2.6 Thermal convection
(1) Natural convection;
(2) Forced cooling convection.
The analysis of the above factors from the PCB is an effective way to solve the temperature rise of the printed board. These factors are often related and dependent on each other in a product and system. Most of the factors should be analyzed according to the actual situation, and only for a specific The actual situation can calculate or estimate the parameters such as temperature rise and power consumption more correctly.
1 Heat dissipation through the PCB board itself
At present, the widely used PCB boards are copper-clad/epoxy glass cloth substrates or phenolic resin glass cloth substrates, and a small amount of paper-based copper-clad boards are used. Although these substrates have excellent electrical properties and processing properties, they have poor heat dissipation. As a heat dissipation path for high-heating components, it is almost impossible to expect heat from the resin of the PCB itself to conduct heat, but to dissipate heat from the surface of the component to the surrounding air. However, as electronic products have entered the era of miniaturization of components, high-density mounting, and high-heating assembly, it is not enough to rely on the surface of a component with a very small surface area to dissipate heat.
At the same time, due to the extensive use of surface mount components such as QFP and BGA, a large amount of heat generated by the components is transferred to the PCB board. Therefore, the best way to solve the problem of heat dissipation is to improve the heat dissipation capacity of the PCB itself, which is in direct contact with the heating element, through the PCB board. To be transmitted or emitted.
2 High heat-generating components plus radiator and heat conduction plate
When a small number of components in the PCB generate a large amount of heat (less than 3), a heat sink or heat pipe can be added to the heating device. When the temperature cannot be lowered, a heat sink with a fan can be used to enhance heat dissipation Effect.
When the number of heating devices is large (more than 3), a large heat dissipation cover (board) can be used, which is a special heat sink customized according to the position and height of the heating device on the PCB or a large flat heat sink Cut out different component height positions.
The heat dissipation cover is integrally buckled on the surface of the component, and it is in contact with each component to dissipate heat. However, the heat dissipation effect is not good due to the poor consistency of height during assembly and welding of components. Usually a soft thermal phase change thermal pad is added on the component surface to improve the heat dissipation effect.
3 For equipment that adopts free convection air cooling, it is best to arrange integrated circuits (or other devices) vertically or horizontally.
4 Use reasonable wiring design to achieve heat dissipation
Because the resin in the plate has poor thermal conductivity, and the copper foil lines and holes are good conductors of heat, increasing the residual rate of the copper foil and increasing the thermally conductive holes are the main means of heat dissipation.
To evaluate the heat dissipation capacity of the PCB, it is necessary to calculate the equivalent thermal conductivity (nine eq) of the composite material composed of various materials with different thermal conductivity-the insulating substrate for the PCB.
5 The devices on the same printed board should be arranged as far as possible according to their calorific value and degree of heat dissipation. Devices with low calorific value or poor heat resistance (such as small-signal transistors, small-scale integrated circuits, electrolytic capacitors, etc.) should be placed in cooling The uppermost flow (at the entrance) of the airflow, and the devices with large heat or heat resistance (such as power transistors, large-scale integrated circuits, etc.) are placed at the most downstream of the cooling airflow.
6 In the horizontal direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the edge of the printed board to shorten the heat transfer path; in the vertical direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the top of the printed board to reduce the temperature of other devices when these devices work. Influence.
7 The heat dissipation of the printed board in the equipment mainly relies on air flow, so the air flow path should be studied during the design, and the device or printed circuit board should be reasonably configured. When air flows, it always tends to flow in places with low resistance, so when configuring devices on a printed circuit board, avoid leaving a large airspace in a certain area. The configuration of multiple printed circuit boards in the whole machine should also pay attention to the same problem.
8. The temperature-sensitive device is best placed in the lowest temperature area (such as the bottom of the device). Never place it directly above the heating device. It is best to stagger multiple devices on the horizontal plane.
9 Arrange the components with the highest power consumption and the highest heat generation near the best position for heat dissipation. Do not place high-heating devices on the corners and peripheral edges of the printed board, unless a heat sink is arranged near it. When designing the power resistor, choose a larger device as much as possible, and make it have enough space for heat dissipation when adjusting the layout of the printed board.
10 The RF power amplifier or LED PCB adopts a metal base substrate.
11 Avoid the concentration of hot spots on the PCB, distribute the power evenly on the PCB board as much as possible, and keep the PCB surface temperature performance uniform and consistent. It is often difficult to achieve strict uniform distribution during the design process, but areas with too high power density must be avoided to prevent hot spots from affecting the normal operation of the entire circuit. If possible, it is necessary to analyze the thermal efficiency of the printed circuit. For example, the thermal efficiency index analysis software module added in some professional PCB design software can help designers optimize the circuit design.