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Principle and management of circuit board reflow (two) classification of reflow curve
2021-10-05
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Author:Aure

Principle and management of circuit board reflow (two) classification of reflow curve




1. Classification of circuit board reflow curve
Generally speaking, the curve can be roughly divided into (1) RSS type with saddle (2) L type without saddle (RTS type Rampto Spike) (3) long saddle type (LSP type Low Long Spike) now explained below:

(1) With saddle type:
Starting from room temperature, heat up the walking board to the head of the saddle at a rate of 1-1.5°C/sec. Then use a slow rise or constant temperature method to pull the saddle up to 150—170°C within 60 to 90 seconds. The main function of this section is to allow the circuit board and components to absorb enough heat, so that the internal and external temperatures can be maintained at a uniform temperature. Soaring peak temperature. The peak temperature of this Profi1e is about 240±5°C, the TAL (the duration above the melting point) is about 50-80 seconds, and the quenching rate is 3-4°C/sec, totaling 3-4 minutes.

 


 

(2) Saddleless type:
The temperature is increased linearly throughout the whole process, and the rate is controlled between 0.8-0.9℃/sec, and the peak temperature is increased all the way to 240±5℃. The L-shaped curve is preferably straight or slightly concave, and no bulge is allowed to avoid blistering on the surface of the thick plate due to overheating of the plate surface. And the 2/3 length of the heating line should not exceed 150℃, and the other parameters are the same as above.

 

Principle and management of circuit board reflow (two) classification of reflow curve

 

(3) Long saddle type:
When the circuit board needs to be soldered with multiple BGAs, in order to reduce the voiding in the ball and to supply sufficient heat to the ball in the abdominal bottom, the saddle with a saddle can be gently extended to drive away the inner Volatile content in ball solder paste. The method starts with a heating rate of 1.25°C/sec. When it reaches the first saddle of 120°C, it takes 120-180 seconds to go to the end saddle and then the peak temperature soars. The other parameters are also the same as the above. .

 


 

2. The quality and technique of the mobile profiler
The number of thermocouples that can be drawn by the necessary thermometer ranges from 4 to 36), and the brand and price are also very different (NT.100,000 to 300,000). The data that can be recorded by the recorder of a good thermometer should include: the heating rate of the initial stage, the temperature difference of the PCB board, the time consumption of the heat absorption stage, the soaring rate before the peak temperature, the peak temperature reading, and the liquid state of the molten solder paste Important parameters such as duration (TAL) and the cooling rate of the final course.

 

In order to achieve the mission, the main box of the thermometer and the internal battery must be heat-resistant, and the shape must be flat enough not to be jammed by the furnace mouth, and the thermal error of the thermocouple wire itself must not exceed ±1℃. Temperature measurement sampling The frequency should not exceed 1 time per second, the amount of memory should be large enough, the output data should also have the ability of statistical control (SPC), and the software upgrade should be simple and easy.

 

Normally, in the reflow of larger circuit boards, the leading edge of its leading entry must of course be warmed up and cooled earlier than the middle or trailing edge. Moreover, the heat absorption and temperature rise of the four corners or the edges of the board must be faster and higher than the center, so the attached thermocouple wire should at least include these two areas. In addition, the body of large parts will also absorb heat, causing its pins to heat up more slowly than smaller passive components. Even the heat of the belly bottom of the large BGA is not easy to penetrate. At this time, the PCB of the belly bottom must be drilled separately, and the temperature sensing wire drawn from the bottom surface must be welded from the front of the board, and then measured when the BGA is attached. The temperature at the blind spot. Some components that are sensitive to strong heat should also be deliberately pasted with thermocouple wires as the primary condition for determining the reflow curve.


 

In order to avoid the heat-sensitive element and the high-level thick board from being damaged by strong heat, a thermometer must be used to find the "hottest spot" and "coldest spot" on the assembly board. The method is to take another test board with printed solder paste, first pass through the reflow oven at high speed (such as 2m/min), and then observe whether the double pads of small passive components (such as capacitors) on the side of the board have been soldered properly? Then reduce the speed again (such as 1.5m/min) for trial welding, until the first welding spot appears, which is the hottest spot of the whole board. Then continue to reduce the speed (that is, increase the heat) until the final welding of the large component When the point is also completed, that is the coldest point of the whole board. Therefore, at a predetermined Spike temperature (such as 240°C), it will be possible to try to find the correct conveying speed of the assembled board. At this moment, the liquid state of the solder paste can also be measured by TAL. In this way, heat-sensitive components and high-level thick plates can be safe, so that they will not be burned or surface exploded during the strong heat of reflow.

 


3. Management of heat absorption in the saddle
In terms of the solder paste specifications of various brands of SAC305 or SAC3807, the time required for the saddle to absorb heat is about 60-120 seconds, and the temperature rises slowly from 110-130°C on the front saddle to 165-190°C. The saddle is hot. When the PCB is a thick multi-layer board (especially a high-level thick board), the components carried are also thick and large, and even if the installed BGA is not a small number, the 4-6 stage heat absorption will be very critical. The inner and outer parts of the thick plate and the thick parts must be fully absorbed by the heat, and the rapid and intense heat of the subsequent soaring peak temperature will not cause the thick plate or thick parts to burst due to the large temperature difference between the inside and the outside. At this time, the profile must be a reflow curve with saddle or hat brim.

 


However, if it is a small plate or a single or double panel, the components carried are mostly small ones, and the temperature difference between inside and outside is not large. In order to strive for output and speed, the heat absorption section can be used to shorten the time and quickly increase the temperature <1℃ /sec above), the saddle will disappear at this time, and an L-shaped profile will rise up and down like a roof along the road. However, the quality of the reflow furnace itself will be greatly affected at this time. The heat transfer efficiency of each section must be efficient and uniform, and when the board enters and loses temperature instantaneously, its rapid and accurate compensation capability must be fast and efficient. Do not cause the regional drop to be too large (the partial plate surface should not exceed 4 ℃).

 

Those with obvious saddles have a longer TAL time (approximately 120 seconds), while those without an L-shaped saddle have a shorter TAL time (approximately 60 seconds). An important lead-free specification is an examination document for moisture-sensitive packaged components; deliberately let the seals pass the first stage of full moisture absorption, and then pass the subsequent reflow test to observe whether the seals can withstand moisture absorption and strength Hot torture. Fig5-1 in the 020C is the test curve for observing whether the seal will burst. The outside of this figure is a relatively smooth and time-consuming curve, which is the profile of the lead-free large-piece test; while the center-shaped undulation is quite steep and the time-consuming and short-term is the test curve for small lead parts. Many people mistakenly use this special test curve for mass production, which is unavoidable for Zhang Guan.

 


Fourth, the fit of solder paste and curve
In general solder paste formulations, 90% by weight is powdered (small ball) metal solder, and 10% is organic auxiliary materials. Excluding a small amount of supporting angle metals (such as antimony, indium, germanium, etc.), even if the main components are exactly the same (such as SAC305), the size and quantity of tin particles are in different proportions, and their fluidity and healing properties are also present. Quite a big difference.

 
 

As for organic excipients, there is even more room for swaying, and most of the differences in brand quality are due to this. The organic matter contains flux, activator, adhesive, anti-sagging agent, and solvent, etc.; with metal balls, it can show the necessary printability, long-lasting adhesion (Jack Time), anti-collapse, etc. Viscosity value, no-clean insulation quality (industrial R or resistivity of aqueous solution, etc.), tin looseness and tin up, etc. Therefore, various commercial solder pastes will be included in their catalogs, with special emphasis on the temperature range that can be heat-resistant and not deteriorated during each stage of heating; and the various quality characteristics displayed after the solder joints are formed.

 

 

As for the length of the molten solder paste liquid time (TAL), it is also related to the type and thickness of the surface treatment of the board to be soldered. Generally, the common TAL of the board is 60 ah 100 seconds to reduce the heat treatment of the soldering board and the flux. Suffering, but it is still necessary to complete the solder paste healing, and dip the tin or I to be the main purpose. If the TAL is too long, it will cause damage to the parts and the board. Even the flux is also carbonized (Charring). However, if TAL is too short, it will obviously lead to smelting welding, poor tin eating or insufficient solder paste healing, resulting in loss of granular appearance. For the highly heat-sensitive board to be welded, it seems that the shortest TAL can be started from the test welding, and the most suitable welding conditions can be found through the more convenient fine-tuning of the travel speed without changing the hot air conditions of each section.